Sunday, August 29, 2010

History of the scanner

Modern scanners may be considered the successors of early telephotography and fax input devices, consisting of a rotating drum with a single photodetector at a standard speed of 60 or 120 rpm (later models up to 240 rpm). They send a linear analog AM signal through standard telephone voice lines to receptors, which synchronously print the proportional intensity on special paper. This system was in use in press from the 1920s to the mid-1990s. Color photos were sent as three separated RGB filtered images consecutively, but only for special events due to transmission costs.

Édouard Belin is the inventor in 1907 of a phototelegraphic apparatus called the Bélinographe, a system able to send remote photographs, via telephone and telegraphic networks. Since 1914, a photograph of report is transmitted by telephotograph.

Its process was improved in 1921, so that it was able to transmit the images by radio waves.
In this apparatus, the transmitter traverses the original image point by point, and measures the light intensity via an electric eye. The intensity is conveyed to the receiver. There, a source of light reproduces the intensities measured by the electric eye, while carrying out same displacements exactly. By doing this, it impresses photographic paper, which makes it possible to obtain a copy of the original image.

The modern telecopiers and photocopiers use the same principle, with this close the sensor of light intensity was replaced by a sensor CCC, and that the device of impression is based on the laser technology, and either photographic.

The first image scanner developed for use with a computer, was a drum scanner. It was built in 1957 at the US National Bureau of Standards by a team led by Russell A. Kirsch. The first image ever scanned on this machine was a 5 cm square photograph of Kirsch's then-three-month-old son, Walden. The black and white image had a resolution of 176 pixels on a side.

Drum scanners capture image information with photomultiplier tubes (PMT), rather than the charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays found in flatbed scanners and inexpensive film scanners.

The drum scanner gets its name from the clear acrylic cylinder, the drum, on which the original artwork is mounted for scanning. Depending on size, it is possible to mount originals up to 11"x17", but maximum size varies by manufacturer. One of the unique features of drum scanners is the ability to control sample area and aperture size independently. The sample size is the area that the scanner encoder reads to create an individual pixel. The aperture is the actual opening that allows light into the optical bench of the scanner. The ability to control aperture and sample size separately is particularly useful for smoothing film grain when scanning black-and white and color negative originals.

While drum scanners are capable of scanning both reflective and transmissive artwork, a good-quality flatbed scanner can produce good scans from reflective artwork. As a result, drum scanners are rarely used to scan prints now that high-quality, inexpensive flatbed scanners are readily available. Film, however, is where drum scanners continue to be the tool of choice for high-end applications. Because film can be wet-mounted to the scanner drum and because of the exceptional sensitivity of the PMTs, drum scanners are capable of capturing very subtle details in film originals.

Only a few companies continue to manufacture drum scanners. While prices of both new and used units have come down over the last decade, they still require a considerable monetary investment when compared to CCD flatbed and film scanners. However, drum scanners remain in demand due to their capacity to produce scans that are superior in resolution, color gradation, and value structure. Also, because drum scanners are capable of resolutions up to 12,000 PPI, their use is generally recommended when a scanned image is going to be enlarged.

The first scanned imageIn most graphic-arts operations, very-high-quality flatbed scanners have replaced drum scanners, being both less expensive and faster. However, drum scanners continue to be used in high-end applications, such as museum-quality archiving of photographs and print production of high-quality books and magazine advertisements. In addition, due to the greater availability of pre-owned units, many fine-art photographers are acquiring drum scanners, which has created a new niche market for the machines.

***inserts from

Thursday, August 26, 2010

Calibrate Your Scanner

If you have trouble getting scans that look right, the problem may not be with your scanning technique. Calibrating your scanner can go a long way toward insuring that what you scan and what you see on-screen and what you print are all the same. Scanner calibration goes along with monitor and printer calibration to help get the best color match possible from three very different devices.

Color correction can be done within Adobe Photoshop, Corel Photo-Paint, or your other image editor of choice. However, if you find yourself having to make the same types of corrections over and over — scans that are consistently too dark or have a reddish cast to them, for example — calibrating your scanner can save much image editing time.

Basic Visual Calibration
The first steps in calibrating your scanner are to calibrate your monitor and calibrate your printer. The next step is to scan something and make adjustments until your scanned image, your monitor display, and your printer output all accurately reflect the same colors. This step requires that you first become familiar with your scanning software and the adjustments available.

If you've calibrated your printer by printing a digital test image (as described in Calibrate Your Printer), you can scan your print of that test image and use it to visually calibrate your scanner to the output of your printer. Or, use any high quality photographic image with a good range of tonal values. Before scanning for calibration be sure that all automatic color correction is turned off. After scanning, adjust the controls (on your scanner or within your scanning software) and rescan until what you scan matches your monitor display and printed output. Note all adjustments and save them as a profile for future use. Scan, compare, and adjust. Repeat as necessary until you are satisfied that you've found the optimal settings for your scanner.

Color Calibration with ICC Profiles
ICC profiles provide a way to insure consistent color. These files are specific to each device on your system and contain information about how that device produces color. If your scanner or other software comes with a pre-made color profile for your scanner model, it may give good enough results using automatic color correction.

ICC profiles
Get an ICC profile for your monitor as well as your printer, scanner, digital camera or other equipment.

Calibration or profiling software may come with an IT8 scanner target — a printed piece that includes photographic images, grayscale bars, and color bars. Various manufacturers have their own images but they all generally conform to the same standard for color representation. The scanner target requires a digital reference file specific to that image. Your calibration software can compare your scan of the image to the color information in the reference file to create an ICC profile specific to your scanner. (If you have a scanner target without its reference file, you can use it as your test image for visual calibration as described above.)

Scanner targets and their reference file can also be purchased from companies that specialize in color management.

Targets and Test Images
Whether visually or with color management software, target images provide a range of color and grayscale for calibrating monitors, printers, scanners, and digital cameras. Find free and commercial scanner targets, their reference files, and other test images.

Scanner calibration should be redone every month or so, depending on how much you use your scanner. And if you make changes to your software or hardware, it may be necessary to re-calibrate.

Calibration Tools
Color Management Systems include tools for calibrating monitors, scanners, printers, and digital cameras so they all "speak the same color." These tools often include a variety of generic profiles as well as the means to customize profiles for any or all of your devices.

***article from

Monday, August 23, 2010

Canon ImageFORMULA P-150

The Canon ImageFORMULA P-150 scanner offers simple, portable scanning with no external power supply needed! The P-150 boasts 15ppm scanning speeds, power from a single USB cable, one-pass duplex scanning, Skip Blank Page, Advanced Text Enhancement and more! ISIS and TWAIN drivers are available for easy integration!

Thursday, August 19, 2010

NEW: Canon Flatbed Scanner Unit 101

Simple to connect via USB cable, the optional Flatbed Scanner Unit 101 works across a wide range of Canon DR-series scanners*. Ideal for bound and fragile documents, it offers 50% greater productivity than similar competitive products. High-speed, high-resolution (1200 dpi) open scanning is supported by a unique adjustable cover and ambient light control.


Versatile, USB connection to wide range of imageFORMULA scanners
Up to 50% greater productivity with high-speed scanning
Continuous open scanning using unique ambient light cancelling mode
Flexibility with adjustable cover for different types and sizes of documents, up to legal size
High-quality 1200 dpi scanning with advanced image-processing features
Seamless dual scanning to create one document

Simple to connect, seamless to operate
The Flatbed Scanner Unit 101 connects with a wide range of Canon DR-series scanners to provide easy, versatile capture of materials that can’t be scanned with an automatic document feeder. Ideal for scanning books, magazines and bound or fragile materials, the flatbed scanner provides a useful option for high-speed, high-resolution scanning. Easily moved within the office for use with various Canon scanners, it can be stowed away to free up valuable desk space when not needed.

The best connections, across the range
For greater versatility the flatbed scanner unit will connect via USB to almost all Canon’s DR-series scanners: great for when you need occasional flatbed scanning alongside your regular Canon batch scanner.

Greater productivity
By connecting to Canon’s high-speed scanners, the Flatbed Scanner Unit 101 enables increased productivity. Rapid flatbed scanning speeds of less than three seconds for an A4 page save you 50% more time than many competitive flatbed scanners. You can scan up to legal size (216 x 356mm) or as small as passports or business cards, ideal when you need to capture a wide range of items quickly and cost-effectively.

Easy, open scanning
A unique ambient light cancelling mode guarantees you the same high-quality images irrespective of whether the scanner’s lid is open or closed. This feature is a great productivity-booster when you need to scan large volumes at speed.

Impressive image quality
For outstanding image quality the flatbed scanner has a high optical resolution – 1200 dpi. It also benefits from the rich range of image-processing features available on the DR-series document scanners, such as Auto-Colour Detection, Auto-Resize, Deskew and Text Orientation Recognition. Simply place your document on the flatbed and let the scanner go to work – producing perfect image results scan after scan.

One document dual-scanning
A seamless interface between Canon DR-series scanners and the Flatbed Scanner Unit 101 enables you to scan from both feeder and flatbed in a single-operation. Users can organise their documents more efficiently and be more productive by scanning multiple formats into a single document file.

Green credentials
The Flatbed Scanner Unit 101 complies with ENERGY STAR – requiring less power to run and reducing costs.

* The optional Flatbed Scanner Unit 101 is compatible with the imageFORMULA DR-2010C, DR-2510C, DR-3010C, DR-4010C, DR-6010C, DR-6050C, DR-7550C and DR-9050C.

Monday, August 16, 2010

HP Scanjet customer presentation

Targeting your dynamic business challenges, HP document management scanners increase efficiencies and improve productivity.

Who can benefit?
Faced with the growing demand for capturing and managing structured and unstructured data, and the increase in government regulations for tracking and archiving sensitive documents, you need a better solution. The HP workgroup document scanners address diverse and ever-changing business needs by streamlining document management processes and enhancing effectiveness.

HP document scanners are the first step in making your processes more efficient. Instead of constantly searching for paper documents and working to organize them, you can digitize files for easy sharing, storage and access. It lends considerable versatility and functionality to human resources (HR), accounting, legal and shipping/receiving departments.

Implementing a document management system into daily business practices helps you boost revenue by increasing productivity and reducing administrative costs. HP workgroup document scanners provide the necessary tools to help:

Improve efficiency as employees spend less time on organizational tasks.
Make fast, reliable decisions with immediate access to secure data.
Integrate and save scanned documents into an existing data management system.
Support security standards and design policies to comply with federal regulations such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Sarbanes-Oxley.
HP offers document capture solutions for virtually any workgroup setting in small or large companies.

Why HP?

HP workgroup document scanners incorporate innovative technology with intuitive product design. They are a perfect fit for both basic and more sophisticated document management systems. Key benefits include:

Ease of use. HP delivers easy-to-implement and operate scanning solutions with one-touch functions that scan and file documents, edit text using optical character recognition (OCR), as well as send e-mails and copy at the push of a button.
Have confidence that your documents are reliably scanned with HP Precision Feed technology, a set of innovations including: multi-phase pick process, advanced separation technology, automatic picking technology, mixed stack handling and ultrasonic double-feed detection. These technologies enable reliable scanning of almost any document type, even mixed stacks of different paper sizes and weights. (Available on the HP Scanjet 7000 and HP Scanjet 9120.)
Stellar performance. With scan speeds up to 50 ppm/100 ipm and high-capacity automated document feeders (ADFs), HP document scanners are designed to meet the most challenging customer requirements.
Comprehensive suite of document management software. HP scanners integrate seamlessly into a broad range of capture applications. The HP Smart Document Scan Software technology simplifies scan settings and task workflows (see "Included software" for more details).
Flexibility. HP's complete line offers a variety of options to meet all needs, from the most simple to the most complex, including flatbeds that can handle legal-size documents, duplex scanners, scanners with automatic document feeders and fast sheet-feed scanners.
Exceptional image quality. HP scanners provide the ultimate combination of scanning resolution and fast execution. By including a Kofax VRS and/or Kofax VRS Pro with our doc scanners, HP obtains the highest image quality without sacrificing speed.
HP Scanners provide a world of digital photography possibilities right at your fingertips. With these photo-friendly tools, you can convert traditional prints to digital, edit photos, share pictures with friends and family, and more.

Here's a look at three types of scanners. Understanding the benefits of each will help you choose the one that's best for your needs.

Flatbed scanners look and work like small copy machines: You lay the object you want to scan on a pane of glass. Flatbed scanners are versatile, as they can scan photos, books, documents and even three-dimensional objects.
See-thru vertical scanners are ultra thin and feature an easel for vertical storage and placement. You can see what you're scanning, and can scan large items that other types of scanners can't handle.
Sheet-fed scanners are excellent for scanning large numbers of loose, individual sheets, but they cannot handle bound documents or photographs.
When shopping for a scanner, consider these features:
Optical resolution: Optical resolution refers to the number of pixels per inch (ppi) that a scanner can capture. The higher the resolution, the sharper and clearer your images.
Interpolated resolution: Sometimes called enhanced resolution, this number refers to how well a scanner can enhance an image after capturing it. A scanner captures dots, then adds more dots between them to yield a higher resolution.
Bit depth: This refers to the number of bits used to capture each dot. A 24-bit scanner will be suitable for scanning photos, drawings, and text, while a 36- or 48-bit scanner is best for scanning film or transparencies.
Speed: If you're planning to scan large batches of images or documents in a single session, speed might be a major consideration.

Wednesday, August 11, 2010

What is SCSI?

SCSI (pronounced SKUH-zee and sometimes colloquially known as "scuzzy"), the Small Computer System Interface, is a set of ANSI standard electronic interfaces that allow personal computers to communicate with peripheral hardware such as disk drives, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, printers, and scanners faster and more flexibly than previous interfaces. Developed at Apple Computer and still used in the Macintosh, the present set of SCSIs are parallel interfaces. SCSI ports continue to be built into many personal computers today and are supported by all major operating systems.
In addition to faster data rates, SCSI is more flexible than earlier parallel data transfer interfaces. The latest SCSI standard, Ultra-2 SCSI for a 16-bit bus can transfer data at up to 80 megabytes per second (MBps).SCSI allows up to 7 or 15 devices (depending on the bus width) to be connected to a single SCSI port in daisy-chain fashion. This allows one circuit board orcard to accommodate all the peripherals, rather than having a separate card for each device, making it an ideal interface for use with portable and notebook computers. A single host adapter, in the form of a PC Card, can serve as a SCSI interface for a laptop, freeing up the parallel and serial ports for use with an external modem and printer while allowing other devices to be used in addition.

Although not all devices support all levels of SCSI, the evolving SCSI standards are generally backwards-compatible. That is, if you attach an older device to a newer computer with support for a later standard, the older device will work at the older and slower data rate.

The original SCSI, now known as SCSI-1, evolved into SCSI-2, known as "plain SCSI." as it became widely supported. SCSI-3 consists of a set of primary commands and additional specialized command sets to meet the needs of specific device types. The collection of SCSI-3 command sets is used not only for the SCSI-3 parallel interface but for additional parallel and serial protocols, including Fibre Channel, Serial Bus Protocol (used with the IEEE 1394 FireWire physical protocol), and the Serial Storage Protocol (SSP).

A widely implemented SCSI standard is Ultra-2 (sometimes spelled "Ultra2") which uses a 40 MHz clock rate to get maximum data transfer rates up to 80 MBps. It provides a longer possible cabling distance (up to 12 meters) by using low voltage differential (LVD) signaling. Earlier forms of SCSIs use a single wire that ends in a terminator with a ground. Ultra-2 SCSI sends the signal over two wires with the data represented as the difference in voltage between the two wires. This allows support for longer cables. A low voltage differential reduces power requirements and manufacturing costs.

The latest SCSI standard is Ultra-3 (sometimes spelled "Ultra3")which increases the maximum burst rate from 80 Mbps to 160 Mbps by being able to operate at the full clock rate rather than the half-clock rate of Ultra-2. The standard is also sometimes referred to as Ultra160/m. New disk drives supporting Ultra160/m will offer much faster data transfer rates. Ultra160/m also includes cyclical redundancy checking (CRC) for ensuring the integrity of transferred data and domain validation for testing the SCSI network.

Monday, August 9, 2010

New Canon imageFORMULA ScanFront 300/300P

Canon imageFORMULA ScanFront 300
Canon imageFORMULA ScanFront 300P
Network Scanners Offer Businesses Digital Age File Delivery System
Document Scanners Improve Workflow And Security, Facilitate File Sharing

LAKE SUCCESS, N.Y., August 5, 2010 – Recognizing the dynamic needs of today's businesses to quickly and securely share information across a variety of locations, Canon U.S.A., Inc., a leader in advanced digital imaging, today introduced the latest additions to its award-winning lineup of network scanners, the imageFORMULA ScanFront 300/300P. The ScanFront 300/300P network scanners are full-featured, easy-to-use devices developed to capture, convert and share documents across a computer network while improving the security of the data being shared and lowering overall workplace costs.

"The ScanFront 300/300P scanners are ideal solutions for capturing documents in today's decentralized office environments," said Jim Rosetta, vice president and general manager, Imaging Systems Group, Canon U.S.A., Inc. "The new scanners improve collaboration by providing users in central and field locations with the means to capture and share information seamlessly. From manufacturing plants and financial offices to legal service and healthcare facilities, Canon's imageFORMULA technology is facilitating the simple and secure distribution of documents and information across their businesses."

Key features of the ScanFront 300/300P include:

Simple Use – With a large 8.4-inch touch screen display, ScanFront 300/300P users can easily select scanning destinations, and have a clear preview of documents once they are digitized. Four USB ports are included to connect peripherals such as USB drives and keyboards to make installation and operation easier, and Scan-To-Job buttons can be pre-configured for one-touch access to commonly used scanning tasks and destinations.

Quick and Flexible Information Distribution – ScanFront 300/300P can scan in color, grayscale and black & white, at up to 600 dpi, reaching scanning speeds of up to 30 pages-per-minute / 60 images-per-minute (ppm/ipm). Different sized documents, from ID cards to Legal-size, can be quickly scanned and routed directly to various destinations. Users can also create their own private address books to manage recipient information, or use shared LDAP options.

Improved Security – The ScanFront 300/300P have robust security features including device or server authentication, fingerprint authentication (ScanFront 300P), NTLM V2, and document encryption. The ScanFront-300/300P also have the ability to wipe its internal memory clean to protect sensitive or classified information.

Centralized, Remote Management – The ScanFront 300/300P come complete with the ScanFront Administration Tool, software that provides IT managers with a powerful, yet simple and easy way to manage multiple ScanFront devices from a single, centralized management console. IT managers can view ScanFront device configurations and status, update firmware, and change / backup / restore the device settings for a single device or entire fleets of devices on the network. This tool helps to rapidly deploy, configure and maintain ScanFront devices, reducing deployment and ongoing support costs, as well as improving asset tracking.
The ScanFront 300/300P scanners also allow users to distribute document images to individual or multiple destinations including:

Scan-to-E-Mail – Scanned images, whether black & white, grayscale, or color, are automatically converted to JPEG, TIFF or PDF and sent as a file attachment to a single e-mail address or multiple e-mail addresses simultaneously.

Scan-to-Folder – Sends captured images to designated Windows network folders to boost the productivity of remote workgroups on the same network.

Scan-to-FTP – Sends scanned images directly to an FTP server, bypassing the mail server - thus circumventing file size limitations and making it possible for users to share files outside the network and between different Operating Systems.

Scan-to-USB Drive – Stores the scanned image on the connected USB drive or memory device.

Scan-to-Fax – Sends the scanned image to a specific FAX via FAX server or FAX service provider.

Scan-to-Print – Sends the scanned image to a shared printer on the network.

Further enhancing the flexibility of the ScanFront 300/300P scanners will be a new Software Development Kit (SDK), available later this year. Using the SDK, solution providers can tailor the ScanFront 300/300P to suit their specific needs and those of their customers, enabling easier integration with their customers' existing workflows and applications.

The ScanFront 300/300P scanners meet ENERGY STAR® qualifications for energy efficiency and comply with the RoHS and WEEE directives for reduction of hazardous substances and waste products.

The new imageFORMULA ScanFront 300/300P join Canon's robust lineup of network scanner products, including the imageFORMULA ScanFront 220/220P Compact Network Scanners and the ScanFront 220e/220eP Network Scanners powered by eCopy ShareScan. They are available immediately through all authorized Canon resellers for a manufacturer's suggested retail price (MSRP) of $1995 for ScanFront 300, and $2295 for ScanFront 300P.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

A few scanning tips

I came across this article by Wayne Fulton. Here are some portions of it:
For those who have not worked with a scanner before, here is a very basic introduction to get started, a brief overview of how it works, how you would actually "use" a scanner.

The flatbed scanner is very much like a copy machine, to the extent that it has a glass plate under a lid, and a moving light that scans across under it. Except that scanners can do great color too, and have more controls possible. And like a copy machine, a flatbed scanner allows you to scan photos, paper documents, books, magazines, large maps, or even 3-dimensional objects (those that don't have a lot of depth, coins for example), etc. It scans very much like a copy machine. But instead of creating another piece of paper like a copy machine does, we instead create an image in memory, which we can do with as we please. We have acquired a digital image, and we can show it on the screen, or write a file and email it, or print it, anything we wish.

We must use software to operate the scanner. Some scanner software can operate by itself, and some cannot. Most image editor programs (like for example Adobe PhotoDeluxe or JASC Paint Shop Pro or Ulead PhotoImpact, etc) have a menu at File - Acquire or File - Import or File - Scanner that you use to scan an image. Sometimes there is a toolbar Scanner icon too. This menu starts the scanner's software, called a TWAIN driver. A fancy word, it is really just another program, but TWAIN is a software standard that all the scanner manufacturers agree to use, intended so that all image programs can operate all scanners. It wasn't always that way, not so long ago you could use only the one image program that came with the scanner. Today you have your choice of any.

TWAIN is often said to be an acronym for Technology Without An Interesting Name (humor), but the FAQ at the organization says it is not an acronym for anything. They say it instead comes from Rudyard Kipling's line "East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet" (The Ballad of East and West, 1889).

The TWAIN driver itself is simply the software provided by the scanner manufacturer to operate the scanner (the user interface), and it is also the interface between the graphics program and the scanner hardware. Twain refers to that separation, now photo editors dont have to know how to operate scanners. The Twain driver will always have another name too, Microtek calls theirs ScanWizard, Umax has two, VistaScan and MagicScan, and HP had a version called DeskScan, and the current is called PrecisionScan. The TWAIN driver comes with the scanner, and knows how to operate this one brand of scanner hardware. Each scanner manufacturer provides their own TWAIN driver for their hardware. You can use any image program, but you typically must use the provided TWAIN driver.

From our human viewpoint, the TWAIN driver ordinarily has the controls that we use to specify the scan; we set the mode (Color or B&W or Line art), we set 100 dpi or 200 dpi resolution, we set the area on the flatbed glass that we wish to scan, and there are controls to help correct the tonal quality and color balance of the scanned image. After the scan completes, the TWAIN driver transfers the image into the image program memory. That is, the new image just appears back in the image program. Then you can tweak the image more, or print it, or save it to a disk file.

The scanner would be used like this:
Start the image program (probably furnished with the scanner, but it can be any, PhotoImpact, iPhoto Express, Photo Deluxe, Photoshop, Paint Shop Pro, etc).
Select the FILE - ACQUIRE menu, or often there is a toolbar button for it. The newer PhotoImpact version calls it FILE - SCANNER. Some software calls it FILE - IMPORT instead, same thing, it is just to keep you on your toes.

Here is a look at a few samples of menus of various popular image programs that shows the Acquire/Import menu used, and how to find it.

Usually there is also a submenu called SELECT SOURCE where you select your TWAIN driver (called TWAIN32 now). You might have two scanners and you will see both of them there. You must make the scanner selection the first time, but only the first time, until it changes. Then subsequentially, you select Acquire again, and Select Image, and the scanner's TWAIN driver will start and appear.

Microtek ScanWizard looks like this, and others are similar in that there are Preview and Scan buttons, and a Preview view of the glass bed.

The first step is the Preview button. When you press the Preview button (or Overview in this case), you get a quick overview scan of entire scanner bed, or as much of its length as you have previously selected (at the Preferences menu). The Preview is a quick low-resolution scan, and that image of the scanner bed appears in the Preview Window. The units along the top and left edge are inches. This is a 3.5 x 5 inch photo shown on the 14 inch bed of this flatbed. Often there are magnification tools, but the final scan is the important view.

To describe the position of the subject on the glass bed to the scanner, you use the mouse to mark a rectangle on the image of the bed, describing the area you want to scan (that's the dashed line shown). You can mark the entire photo area, or can crop the image to be scanned, by marking only a part of it, or perhaps just a 1-inch square area from it. The Scan button will then scan only the area that you have marked with the mouse.

TYPE is shown selecting the Color Mode, see below for Type. You specify the Scanning resolution here too. The 300 dpi shown creates a large image, but you specify whatever you need for your purpose, normally 75 to 300 dpi is common, but purposes do vary (2400 dpi is used to enlarge film - forget all about using 2400 dpi to scan photo prints). Scanning resolution is specified in dpi or ppi (both terms same exact same meaning, Dots Per Inch means Pixels Per Inch).

This resolution number determines the number of samples (pixels) taken from the photo, and therefore the size of the image you will get, like 800x600 or 300x200 pixels. If you scan 6 inches at 100 dpi, you create 6x100 = 600 pixels. This is covered in the Video Resolution Basics section. You can change the units from Inch to Pixels or Cm to see the final image size in pixels or cm.

The Settings screen above shows that we selected 4.92 x 3.42 inches on the photo on the flatbed glass (the red dashed line box shown). At 300 dpi, this will create an image size of 1476x1026 pixels (this size can be shown if units are switched from inches to pixels above). This size image will consume 4.4 MB of memory (also shown).

If we wanted to scan say 4.5 x 3.0 inches instead, we could simply overtype the size numbers here to get it, or we could remark with the mouse. The resolution multiplied by the size of the marked area determines the image size in pixels (see the Video Resolution Basics section). We can change the displayed units from inches to pixels, to see and predict the image size in pixels on video screens.
There are many controls you can use to improve the image, but for now, I'm trying not to confuse things with details. The additional controls provide a way to get even better scans. In ScanWizard, the tiny button at the right end of the lower toolbar reveals a large RESET button that sets all the defaults, to achieve a known starting point for the scan.

Then you set the TYPE of scan (above). Scanner modes offer the following choices to get image types illustrated by these 50 dpi scans of a small photograph.

To continue - You press the Scan button and the scanner will scan. It takes 15 to 60 seconds perhaps, depending, and then the image will automatically appear back in the original image program, the same as if you had opened an image file. You have now "acquired" an image.

You can modify this image in the image programs if desired, lighten it, darken it, crop it, resize it, change its color balance, touch up small areas, edit it drastically, apply various filters like sharpening filters or descreen filters, etc, etc. Or with some TWAIN drivers, you can do all these things as you scan. Often you need to do nothing more if you got it right in the driver. And, of course, you can always discard this image, make a small change, and see the next try in a minute or so. It's not at all unusual to scan an image a couple of times before getting it exactly right. It depends on the purpose and how critical it might be, and if you keep getting better ideas. But the beauty of a flatbed scanner is that the photo lies motionless on the scanner bed all this time, it doesn't move, and you don't have to keep marking the crop area for every scan. Nothing changes except the settings that you change, so you simply tweak the control, and hit the Scan button again. Nothing to it.

When the image is as you want it, then you can either print it or write it to a disk file, or both. You would use the FILE - SAVE AS menu to specify a file format like TIF or JPG, and a file name. Then you have an image that you can put on a web site or email to someone.